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About Us Units Department of Anatomy and Histology Student’s Guide to Anatomy for Zoology Students

Student’s Guide to Anatomy for Zoology Students



(and for those re-taking the subject)

(updated: 24th of August, 2024)


IMPORTANT NOTEStudents re-taking a given part of the subject are regarded as “regular” for that part, thus the information below shall apply. Exam dates for every student will be published through the NEPTUN-system shortly after the beginning of each academic semester.

Based on questions frequently asked by students about the organisation of the teaching and examination of the subject “Anatomy” the most important information for students has been compiled below. Should you, however, still have related questions please feel free to contact the corresponding contact professor of your class via email. You are kindly requested not to address the head-of-department or his secretary with teaching-related or personal issues.


  1. General information
  2. Laboratory practicals
  3. Midterms
  4. Consultations
  5. Exams
  6. Anatomy I. Exam Information
  7. Anatomy II. Exam Information
  8. Anatomy III. Final Exam Information
  9. Neptun related
  10. For students with learning disabilities


1. General information

1.1. There are no prescribed textbooks. Any exam in anatomy will be based on the information given during lectures, plenary sessions, practicals and the recommended books referred to in lectures – limited copies are available in the Library of the University:

  • König-Liebich: Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Mammals: Textbook and Colour Atlas
  • Nickel, Schummer, Seiferle: Anatomy of the Domestic Animals
  • Dyce, Sack, Wensing: Textbook of veterinary anatomy
  • Constantinescu: Illustrated Veterinary Anatomical Nomenclature
  • Evans-deLahunta: Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog
  • Evans-deLahunta: Guide to the dissection of the Dog
  • Sótonyi Péter: Anatomia Canis CD-ROM
  • Budras: Anatomy of the Dog, An Illustrated Text
  • Budras: Anatomy of the Horse

1.2. All questions relating to the subject of anatomy are addressed in lectures on anatomy and are governed by the information available on the official website of the Department of Anatomy and Histology (hereafter: the Department). If you have any other questions, please email your class’s contact professor. You are kindly requested not to address the head-of-department or his secretary with teaching-related or personal issues.

1.3. Each and every examination organized by the Department shall be associated with an individual deadline for registration in the NEPTUN-System; thus we strongly recommend students to verify that deadline at least one week prior to the exam, since it is not possible to make any changes once the registration period has been closed!
Please do check the email account you submitted to the NEPTUN-system frequently and follow the changes made on the Department’s website, changes & updates will be published therein.

1.4. In many cases, examinations in the NEPTUN-system are given an individual application deadline; thus, always please check at least one week before the exam how long you can modify your application for, as this is no longer possible after the application deadline.

1.5. Anatomy lectures and plenary lectures are held in the Zimmermann Lecture Hall (Building “E”) at the scheduled times.

1.6. All students are expected to attend all scheduled classes. Taking pictures, videos or recordings during the lectures, plenary sessions or practicals is strictly prohibited!

1.7. Starting from September 2021, we are using a  3D projection system for the plenary sessions. All students must obtain circular polarized 3D glasses to follow these.

According to §1.7, students must obtain for the plenary sessions:

– a pair of circular polarized 3D glasses (e.g.: Xpand polar – available in Budapest for example HERE )


2. Laboratory practicals

2.1. Outfit

2.1.1. White, long-sleeved lab coat compulsory at all times in the dissection theatre.

2.1.2. Approriate headwear (long hair must be worn in a bun)

2.1.3.  High heels and open shoes are not permitted for safety and hygiene reasons.

2.1.4. Gloves are mandatory for every practical, and must be obtained by the students themselves (standard examination gloves, at least 2 pairs for each practical)

2.1.5. Shoecovers/Shoebags (provided by the Dept.) are mandatory for every practical.

2.1.6. Protective plastic coats and sleeve protectors ( both provided by the Dept.) are mandatory for every dissection practical.

2.2. We advise students to eat and drink prior to the practicals.

2.3. Students are forbidden to bring any digital device into the dissection hall.

2.4. Starting from the first dissection practical, all students must bring their own dissection kits. Required tools and equipment are as follows:

scalpel (suggested size: #4)
blades (suggested size: #21)
forceps (with teeth, for tissue)

Further tools may be useful: scissors, anatomical forceps, hooks, forceps for vessels, hemostats etc.

2.5. Lost items are collected in the labelled containers in the dissection hall dressing rooms.

2.6. Assignment into groups:

2.6.1. The Department uses the official group assignment provided by the Students’ Secretariat.

2.6.2. You can attend the lab you are registered for only. A permanent change to that may be requested but has to be approved by both the Department and the Secretariat.

2.7. Laboratory attendance is compulsory!

2.8. It is highly recommended that students bring lecture notes and/or textbooks into the dissection hall. Hygiene regulations, however, have to be met and it is the responsibility of students to ensure the hygiene of their notes, the safety and hygiene of others around them and to prevent contamination.

2.8.1. Notes and textbooks can only be placed onto the designated holders.

2.8.2. Any textbooks or notes contaminated with biohazards must be dumped.

2.9. Labs during the academic year:

2.9.1. Practicals are held in building “E1” for the 1st semester and in building “P” for the 2nd and 3rd semesters. The primary objective of the course is to provide the students with hands-on experience that should support and illustrate the concepts covered in the lectures and plenary sessions. Lab practice is about seeing and doing, thus please arrive well-prepared for the practicals to use the time efficiently. In addition, we advise students to focus on a weekly basis on recapitulating the topics covered in the plenary sessions.

2.9.2. The Department registers student attendance based on the attendance lists at the beginning of each practical. It is the responsibility of the student to register themselves even in cases of being late or some other circumstances. Thus, please always make sure that you have been registered upon arrival.

2.9.3 Stundents must hand over their log-books at the beginning of each practical and must collect them upon leaving.

2.10. Absences:

2.10.1. With more than three (3) recorded absences your semester CANNOT be accepted for that subject; thus, it must be re-taken during a later semester for an additional fee in order to sit the examination. This includes any absences for scheduled clinical attendance.

2.10.2. Students cannot be exempted from the regulations on absences by bringing any form of certification for missed practicals (such as a medical certificate).

2.10.3. Due to logistical issues there will be no make-up practicals. If possible, arrangements shall be made for students to catch up any missed section during later regular practicals; please see your professor for advice. There will also be some limited opportunities to visit the lab outside official hours with a tutor (see §4. Consultation).

2.10.4. Upon prior request students may be allowed to switch exceptionally to a group other than that in which they are registered. Such a request, however, must be sent before noon to both of the affected tutors at the latest one working day before the practical. The request is only accepted after the agreement of both tutors. Such a request may affect ONE practical only and will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

2.11. Due to the need for efficient laboratory management and due to the size of the groups it is not possible to attend additional labs outside the limits of a student’s mandatory quota (including labs of different courses/years).

2.12. the student must take a separate examination on the general rules of the dissection hall and on the anatomy examination rules (current page).

2.12.1. Until the student passes both exams, they cannot take part in anatomy labs and this counts as a missed lab.

2.12.2. Exam on the the the general rules of the dissection hall The the general rules of the dissection hall are available on this site and through the Moodle system. The exam is available in Moodle after watching the video above. The exam consists of 5 random, simple choice questions. To complete the exam, you need to achieve 100%results. The student has 8 attempts to pass the exam Deadline for the exam is at on the Monday of the first week with anatomy I. labs . Anyone who does not pass the exam to the deadline must take an oral examination in the office of dr. Reinitz László Zoltán at the time indicated in Moodle.

2.12.3. Exam on departmental rules A video of the departmental rules is available on this page. The exam is available in Moodle after watching the video above. The exam consists of 10 random, simple choice questions. To complete the exam, the student needs to achieve an 80%result. Student has 5 attempts to pass the exam. Deadline for the exam is at on the Monday of the first week with anatomy I. labs.

2.12.4. Anyone who does not pass the exam to the deadline must take an oral examination in the office of dr. Reinitz László Zoltán at the time indicated in Moodle.

 3. Midterms

3.1. During the first year, the Department provides opportunities for the students to monitor their study progress.

3.2. The midterms are voluntary; no make-up midterms will be organised.

3.3 Reaching 75% in the midterms in the active semester will result in a partial exemption from the corresponding Anatomy practical exam.

3.4. Exemptions are valid for the active semester only but would remain valid for any re-take exams of the subject the student may sit in that semester.

3.5. Midterm results will be published through the NEPTUN-system, within three working days.

3.6. The practical midterm of the autumn semester (bone-test) shall take the following form:

3.6.1. During the regular, scheduled practical. Details published on this page.

3.6.2. Students shall be required to identify marked structures on bones and write their answers on the answer-sheet (pin-test). A similar type of exam shall be performed for the practical exam of the autumn semester and the entrance exam for the spring semester.

3.6.3. Topic: skull, skeleton of the trunk, forelimb and hindlimb.

3.6.4. There will be 2 tables with 8 structures to identify on each (16 points in total). Students shall be given 5 minutes for each table.

3.6.5. Students score 75% or more in the midterm shall be exempted from the first (“bones only”) table of the practical exam; a maximum score for this table shall be recorded automatically for such students (§6.6.5.).

3.6.6. Students who are on clinical schedule at this hour may contact the Department in advance(!), through the class representative, to arrange a make-up midterm if needed.

3.8. Midterm of the spring semester shall take the following form:

3.8.1. One pin-test, similar to those of the first semester using formalin-preserved and dissected specimens.

3.8.2. During the regular, scheduled practical. Details published on this page.

3.8.3. Topic: every topic of the current semester that was discussed in classes until the week before the midterm. The topic of the actual week or Anatomy I topics shall not be included.

3.8.4. There will be 2 tables with 8 structures on each and 5 minutes for each during the midterms.

 3.8.5. Students who score 75% or more in the midterm shall be exempted from the pin-test entrance examination of the Anatomy II. practical exam.

3.8.6. Students on compulsory clinical schedule will be provided with make-up opportunities. The schedule will be announced during the spring term.


4. Consultations 

4.1. The Department does offer some limited additional opportunity for students to study the bones and formalin-preserved organs and to practise dissection.

4.2. Instructors (demonstrators) will be present during the practice. Their job is to help the students and ensure compliance with the general rules of the dissection theatre.

4.3. These general rules must be obeyed during consultations, i.e. wearing appropriate lab coats and attire, refraining from eating, drinking, recording etc.

4.4. Bones, and organs must not be taken out of the dissection theatre under any circumstances. The Department has no means of replacing damaged/lost specimens and thus students are asked to take great care with the specimens with which they work.

4.5. Failure to comply with these regulations, inappropriate behaviour or removal of specimens shall result in the suspension or termination of consultations.


 5. Examinations

General notes: Every anatomy exam (all four) includes practical and theoretical parts. Completing the practical exam is always a prerequisite for sitting the theoretical exam, but registering for the theoretical exam is possible beforehand.

IMPORTANT: Please verify your student status!

5.1. Every anatomy examination has two principal sections: a practical and a theoretical one. Students are required to present their study record books at both practical and oral exams. Passing the practical portion of the examination is always a prerequisite for sitting the theoretical exam; it is not, however, a prerequisite for REGISTERING for the theoretical exam! Accordingly, you are welcome to register for a theoretical date without having passed the practical. Prior to the theoretical exam the Department will remove the students who have not passed their practical examinations from the registration list without any negative consequences for the affected students

5.1.1. Please be aware that the last week of the exam period is for re-takes of failed exams only. 

5.1.2. There are 3 practical and 3 theoretical exam chances for every anatomy exam for regular students. Unused regular exam chances are lost.

5.1.3. A “pass” in a practical examination remains valid for later exam periods for Anatomy I., II., III.

5.2. To sit any practical examination, you must not have more than 3 laboratory absences recorded during the semester, i.e. the semester must be accepted – as certified by the “signature” of the authorized lecturer in the NEPTUN-system.

5.3. Please remember: registration deadlines may be significantly different for each exam, even for the same subject.  Accordingly, you are advised to verify the deadline for an exam registration at least one week prior to the exam. It is not possible to make any changes once the registration period has been closed.

5.3.1. NEPTUN registration is mandatory for each exam. Unregistered students are not allowed to sit examinations (except for obligatory examinations for the Anatomy I. practical during the last week)!

5.3.2. If the exact time of the exam is not yet decided, students shall see an unrealistic setting (eg.: 2 a.m.) in Neptun. In this case, date is valid only, time will be updated soon after the closure of the registration period. Location and further information is available in the NOTES section of the exam in Neptun or on this site.

5.4. Practical exams are evaluated with “non-satisfactory / satisfactory / excellent” marks.

5.5. During written exams, the available time as well as the number, the distribution or the emphasis of different question-types may differ.

5.6. Evaluation of the written tests :

in the first semester:

Mark Percent
excellent (5) 90-100%
good (4) 80-89%
satisfactory (3) 70-79%
passing (2) 55-69%
failing (1) 0-54%

in the second semester:

Mark Percent
excellent (5) 90-100%
good (4) 80-89%
satisfactory (3) 70-79%
passing (2) 60-69%
failing (1) 0-59%

5.7. Results should be published through the NEPTUN-system within three working days of sitting an examination.

    5.7.1. Results of the Anatomy I. practical exams will be published before the closest Anatomy I. theoretical exam that follows.

5.8. Test review

5.8.1. The test-review for every practical exam is held immediately after the exam.

5.8.2. There is no further possiblity to view the practical test-papers. The points achieved on each table can be viewed online (based on NEPTUN code), the relevant link will be forwarded to the student representatives after the exam.

5.8.3. It is not possible to review electronic Anatomy I.-II. exams due to technical reasons.

5.9. The preparation times for the Anatomy II. and Anatomy III. dissection exams and the Anatomy III final oral exam are 40 minutes.

5.10. In order to sit a subsequent anatomy exam, all previous anatomy exams must be passed. For example in order to sit the Anatomy II. practical exam, the student must pass the Anatomy I. theoretical exam beforehand.

5.10.1. The practical exam must always be passed before the corresponding theoretical exam.

5.10.2. A pass in the Anatomy I. theoretical examination is a mandatory requirement for participation in Anatomy III. classes, and a pass in the Anatomy II. theoretical examination is equally mandatory for participation in Topographic Anatomy classes.

5.10.3. If the Anatomy I. exam is not fulfilled, the Anatomy II. subject can be taken, but an exam cannot be taken.

5.10.4. If the Anatomy II. exam is not fullfilled, the Anatomy III. subject can be taken, but an exam cannot be taken.

5.11. A successful examination pass remains valid for the entire academic career of the student.

5.11.1. The entrance tests are not considered as separate exams, failed entrance tests need to be retaken.

6. Anatomy I. Exam Information

6.1. Prerequisite for the Anatomy I. practical exam is a “signature” for the practical labs.

6.2. The signature remains valid. In case of a student failing the semester, the student is then entitled to visit the Anatomy I. labs in a later semester dependent upon their student status.

6.3. The exam has a practical and a theoretical part.

6.4. Successful completion of the practical exam as detailed under §5 is a prerequisite requirement for sitting the theoretical examination.

6.5. The Department does not have the authority to provide additional exam opportunities if they reach the maximum number of fails in a semester.

6.6. Practical examinations

6.6.1. It is obligatory to attempt the practical exam during your last practical of the first semester. No NEPTUN registration is required for this exam. Participating with another group is only possible if it has been requested and allowed for in advance, similar to a normal lab-change (see §2.9.4.). However, NEPTUN registration is mandatory for all subsequent practical exam dates!

6.6.2. The Anatomy I. practical exam shall be a pin-test, performed similar to the bone-test during the semester.

6.6.3. There shall be 2 tables for each exam, with 10 structures on each, and 6 minutes given for each.

6.6.4. On the first table bones and skulls, on the second table there will be fresh or formalin fixed dissected cadavers showing muscles, bones, ligaments, and tendons.

N.B.: Please note that the aforementioned separation is based solely on the form in which the given specimen is presented. Any part of the curriculum may be asked on any of the two tables.

6.6.5. In accordance with §3.8. for students with exemptions, the bones table will be credited with 100% (with maximum points).

6.6.6. For a “passing” grade students have to reach at least 11 points combined.

6.7. Theoretical examination

6.7.1. The Anatomy I. theoretical exam is a computer test.

6.7.2. Sample test is available here. All types of questions (e.g.: single choice, multiple choice, labeling images, short answers, essays etc.).

6.7.3. It covers everything that is included in the lecture and study themes of the semester.

7. Anatomy II. Exam Information

7.1. The Anatomy II exam has a practical and a theoretical part as well.

7.1.1. The practical exam includes every PRACTICAL topic from the entire academic year. Topic list is available her. 

7.1.2. The theoretical examination shall be about the topics of the spring semester ONLY.

7.1.3. Theoretical examination is carried out as per the Anatomy I. theoretical exam format, in accordance with the general regulations.

7.2. The Anatomy II. practical exam shall be structured as follows:

7.2.1. Unlike in the first semester, there is no compulsory date for the Anatomy II. practical exam. Students should register for the date they prefer through the NEPTUN-system.

7.2.2. The Anatomy II. practical exam has two major parts: an entrance examination and a dissection.

7.2.3. A successful pass in the entrance examination is a prerequisite requirement for the dissection.

7.2.4. The entrance exam shall be structured as follows: Students who have scored more than 75% on average in the two midterms during the spring semester shall be exempted from the entrance examination and shall sit the dissection part only. This exemption shall remain valid for every practical exam of the semester (see §3.8.5.). No separate NEPTUN registration is needed for the entrance exam, as it is a part of the Anatomy II. practical exam. NEPTUN registration for the corresponding practical exam is sufficient, and indeed is compulsory (§5.3.1.)! Students who pass the entrance exam but fail the dissection part, must repeat the entrance exam during their next attempt. The entrance exam is a pin-test carried out on two tables with 10 structures on each (twenty structures overall). Students shall have 6 minutes for each table. The first table shall cover bone specimens (skull included), and the second shall be about  formalin or unfixed speciments of the second semester. Students must identify SIX structures on EACH table to pass. (see §5.6) Answer sheets are evaluated on the spot so that passing students are able to proceed with the dissection immediately.

7.2.5. Dissection examination Passing the entrance exam is a prerequisite of the practical exam. Students are to properly dissect and demonstrate a randomly given topic from the topic list. Practical exams are evaluated with “non-satisfactory / satisfactory / excellent” marks. Professors register the following criteria for the evaluation: quality of the dissection and the corresponding knowledge (insertions, origins, functions of muscles, supply regions of vessels, faces, edges, lobes, blood supplies to organs). It is not permitted to make notes during the dissection exam. Students have 40 minutes of preparation.


8. Anatomy III. Final Exam information

8.1. The Department cannot expand or modify the previously published exam dates during the exam period.

8.2. The final exam has a practical and a theoretical part as well.

8.3.  Anatomy final practical exam.

8.3.1. Students are given a random dissection topic based on the topic list.

8.3.2. Students have 40 minutes for the dissection. You are asked not to make notes.

8.3.3. Evaluation is based on both the quality of the dissection and the student’s related theoretical knowledge. The possible grades are “non-satisfactory / satisfactory / excellent”.

8.4. Anatomy final theoretical examination

 8.4.1. Theoretical examination is carried out as per the Anatomy I. theoretical exam format, in accordance with the general regulations.

8.4.2. The exam shall include the full curriculum of the Anatomy 1, 2 and 3 subjects.

9. Neptun related

9.1. Registering for exams is always through NEPTUN. (The Anatomy I. practical exam at the very last practical session of the first semester is an exception; participation is compulsory, so no registration is required.)

9.2. Registering individually for practical and theoretical exams is required in each case!

9.3. Please check the deadlines for registering for your exams at least one week before the scheduled exam date; the Department may for logistical reasons have to close the registration up to several working days before the exam.

9.4. At the end of the semester, any student who has received a “signature” for the subject in NEPTUN may sit examinations in that subject. Signature is based on sufficient practical attendance.

9.5. Whilst ever the day of an examination is certain, but the exact start time is as yet not known, the Department shall set the start time in NEPTUN to an unrealistic time (e.g.: 2 a.m.). The starting dates and times are usually determined based on the number of students at the end of the registration period.

9.6. If students registered for a written exam date cannot participate due to failure of the prerequisite practical exam, their registration shall be automatically cancelled by the Department (this will have no negative consequences for the student).

9.7. Exam date changes may be executed through NEPTUN as long as this system allows you to register (based on the application period (see section 9.3) and the available exam dates)

9.8. No special registration is required for the entrance examination of the practical exam (II. semester) or the entrance examination of the final exam (III. semester) (see § and §8.4.3 respectively), as these entrance exams are constituent parts of the relevant exams. The starting times of the examinations stated in NEPTUN denote the start of the entrance exam, unless the student is exempted (see §

9.9. Student record books must be brought by students to their final examinations (both practical and theory exams). Without this book, the examinations cannot be sat!

9.10. In all examinations of Anatomy I. and theoretical exams of Anatomy II., the grades shall be recorded in students’ black books by the Department at the end of the semester after they have been collected by the Students’ Secretariat.

10. For students with learning disabilities

The Department offers special needs accommodation for students with learning disabilities (such as dyslexia, ADHD, etc.) with the following guidelines:

10.1. Students must submit their request along with the corresponding medical certificate (signed by a specialist) to the Student Secretary (it must be evaluated by Prof. Bartha).

10.1.1. Deadline in autumn semester: 30th of September, midnight.

10.1.2. Deadline in spring semester: 28th of February, midnight.

10.1.3. If the request is submitted after this deadline, the student will be eligible for these arrangements starting from the next semester only.

10.1.4. The request shall be submitted only once, after which it shall be valid for the entire acedemic carreer of the student.

10.2. Those, who received special exam-arrangements prior to the 1st of September 2021 will continue to receive those, original arrangements.

10.3. For requests accepted after the 2nd of September 2021, the following arrangements apply:

10.3.1. Anatomy I. and Anatomy II.:

practical: extra 45 minutes of consultation opportunity on every second week (25% extra lab time) in the dissection hall, restricted for students with learning disabilities, supervised by the lecturers.

theory: 30% extra time for every theoretical midterm and exam.

10.3.2. Anatomy 3, Topographical anatomy, Anatomy of domestic birds, Development of organs, Course of human anatomy:

30% extra time for preparation (oral) or total time (written exam) for every exam (practical and theoretical).