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Education Courses Veterinary biochemistry II

Veterinary biochemistry II

Language
English
Nature
mandatory
Method of evaluation
semi-final examination
Year in the curriculum
2
Semester in the curriculum
2
Credits
6
Lectures
45
Practical lessons
15
Documents
Documents
Allow for
  • Vet EN

Course description

Intermediary metabolism: carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids. Biochemistry of different organs. Biochemistry of ruminants. Role of vitamins in the intermediary metabolism. Special focus on the veterinary clinical aspects of Biochemistry and the molecular basis of metabolic diseases.

 

Lectures theme

Grops 1-4

Date Topic Lecturer
6 February Citric acid cycle, respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
7 February* Regulation of blood sugar level. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
13 February Metabolism of other monosaccharides: fructose, galactose. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
14 February Amino acid metabolism: transamination, oxidative deamination. Glucogenic, ketogenic, essential, non-essential amino acids. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
20 February Detoxification of ammonia: urea cycle, ammonium ion formation. Decarboxylation of amino acids, biogenic amines. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
21 February Biologically relevant peptides. Structure and function of hemoglobin. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
27 February Porphyrine metabolism: synthesis and degradation. Myoglobin, Catalase, Peroxidase, Cytochromes. Iron metabolism. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
28 February Role and chemical structure of lipids. Absorption and transport of lipids. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
5 March The lipolysis. Degradation of fatty acids: beta-oxidation of even-carbon, odd-carbon and unsaturated fatty acids. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
6 March Ketogenesis, ketolysis. Biochemical background of ketosis. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
12 March Synthesis of even-carbon, odd-carbon and unsaturated fatty acids. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
13 March Lipogenesis. Lipoids: phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
19 March Role of the liver I: intermediary metabolism, secretion; detoxification: synthesis, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, conjugation. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
20 March Biochemistry of muscle, brain, adipose tissue and kidney. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
26 March Steroids: structure and function of cholesterol. Synthesis of cholesterol. (2 h) Dr. Mackei Máté
27 March The metabolism of bile acids and steroid hormones. (1 h) Dr. Mackei Máté
2 April Carbohydrate metabolism of ruminants: production of volatile fatty acids. Absorption and metabolism of the volatile fatty acids in the ruminants’ tissues. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
3 April Metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in ruminants. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
9-10 April EASTERN HOLIDAY, NO LECTURE
16 April Lipid metabolism of ruminants. Ketosis of the ruminants. Biochemistry of milk production. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
17 April Introduction of vitamins. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
23 April Biochemistry of retinol (vitamin A) and calcipherol (vitamin D). (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
24 April Biochemistry of tocopherol (vitamin E). (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
30 April Biochemistry of phylloquinon (vitamin K), essential fatty acids and thiamine (vitamin B1). (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
1 May* Biochemistry of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacinamide (vitamin B3). (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
7 May Biochemistry of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and biotin (vitamin B7). (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
8 May Biochemistry of folic acid (vitamin B9). (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
14 May Biochemistry of cobalamin (vitamin B12) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
15 May Biochemistry of lipotropic factors. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna

*The lecture will be held on another day (announced later).

Grops 5-10

Date Topic Lecturer
6 February Citric acid cycle. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
7 February* Respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation. Regulation of blood sugar level. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
13 February Metabolism of fructose. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
14 February Metabolism of galactose. Amino acid metabolism: transamination, oxidative deamination. Glucogenic, ketogenic, essential, non-essential amino acids. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
20 February Detoxification of ammonia I.: urea cycle. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
21 February Detoxification of ammonia II.: ammonium ion formation. Decarboxylation of amino acids, biogenic amines. Biologically relevant peptides. Structure and function of hemoglobin. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
27 February Porphyrine metabolism: synthesis and degradation. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
28 February Myoglobin, Catalase, Peroxidase, Cytochromes. Iron metabolism. Role and chemical structure of lipids. Absorption and transport of lipids. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
5 March The lipolysis. Degradation of fatty acids I.: beta-oxidation of even-carbon fatty acids. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
6 March Degradation of fatty acids II.: beta-oxidation of odd-carbon and unsaturated fatty acids. Ketogenesis, ketolysis. Biochemical background of ketosis. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
12 March Synthesis of even-carbon fatty acids. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
13 March Synthesis of odd-carbon and unsaturated fatty acids. Lipogenesis. Lipoids: phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
19 March Role of the liver I.: intermediary metabolism. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
20 March Role of the liver II.: secretion; detoxification: synthesis, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, conjugation. Biochemistry of muscle, brain, adipose tissue and kidney. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
26 March Steroids: structure and function of cholesterol. Synthesis of cholesterol I. (1 h) Dr. Mackei Máté
27 March Synthesis of cholesterol II. The metabolism of bile acids and steroid hormones. (2 h) Dr. Mackei Máté
2 April Carbohydrate metabolism of ruminants: production of volatile fatty acids. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
3 April Absorption and metabolism of the volatile fatty acids in the ruminants’ tissues. Metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in ruminants. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
9-10 April EASTERN HOLIDAY, NO LECTURE
16 April Lipid metabolism of ruminants. Ketosis of the ruminants. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
17 April Biochemistry of milk production. Introduction of vitamins. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
23 April Biochemistry of retinol (vitamin A). (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
24 April Biochemistry of calcipherol (vitamin D) and tocopherol (vitamin E). (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
30 April Biochemistry of phylloquinon (vitamin K) and essential fatty acids. (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
1 May* Biochemistry of thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacinamide (vitamin B3). (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
7 May Biochemistry of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
8 May Biochemistry of biotin (vitamin B7) and folic acid (vitamin B9). (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
14 May Biochemistry of cobalamin (vitamin B12). (1 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna
15 May Biochemistry of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and lipotropic factors. (2 h) Dr. Neogrády Zsuzsanna

*The lecture will be held on another day (announced later).

Practical lessons theme

Lab No Subject Date Groups
VI. Biological oxidation 17-20 February
24-27 February
1,3,5,7,9 2,4,6,8,10
VII. Blood sugar level and its regulation 2-5 March
9-12 March
1,3,5,7,9 2,4,6,8,10
VIII. Hemoglobin 16-19 March
23-26 March
1,3,5,7,9 2,4,6,8,10
IX. Lipids 30 March -2 April 1,3,5,7,9
NO PRACTICAL 6-9 April
EQUUS DAYS
NO PRACTICAL
13-16 April
IX. Lipids 20-23 April 2,4,6,8,10
X. Vitamins 27-30 April
4-7 May
1,3,5,7,9 2,4,6,8,10
Additional practicals 11-12 May

 Additional practicals:

Labs IX. – X.: 11 May , start: 1200 – 1500

Labs VI. – VIII.: 12 May, start: 1200 – 1500

Dr. Sebők Csilla (E-mail: Sebok.Csilla@univet.hu) is responsible for the biochemical practicals in English.

For lab change request and further information, please contact: Sebok.Csilla@univet.hu

 

Evaluation description

Students will be hereby informed that the prevalent qualification system and requirements in subject Biochemistry II. for the spring semester are as follows:

  • Regular visiting of the lectures (no more than 3 unjustified absences can be accepted)
  • Successful performance of all laboratory courses
  • Completion of 60% of the maximal scores in the laboratory courses
  • Completion of 60% of the maximal scores on the written midterm test

The date of the midterm test: 1 April 2020 at 715 in the Armand Kemény lecture hall of the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry.

Retake of the midterm: 29 April 2020 at 715 in the Armand Kemény lecture hall of the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry.

Extra retake (from whole Biochemistry II): 15 May 2020 at 715 in the Armand Kemény lecture hall of the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry.

The competition in Biochemistry will be held: 8 May 2020, 1515 – 1800

Consultation possibility after registration: Dr. Gábor Mátis, Monday, 1600-1800
(E-mail: Matis.Gabor@univet.hu)

Attending the Biochemistry 2. course:

Biochemistry 2. lectures and laboratory practicals can be visited and the Biochemistry 2. midterm can be written even without having Biochemistry 1. accepted. It means that completing the requirements of Biochemistry 1. is not a prerequisite of registering and attending the Biochemistry 2. course. However, attending the Biochemistry final exam (written and oral) is only possible after successful completion of all requirements of both Biochemistry 1. and 2. courses.

Requirements of the acceptance of the semester:

  • Fulfilling the requirements of the theoretical part of Biochemistry 2.:
    • Regular visiting of the lectures (no more than 3 unjustified absences can be accepted).
    • Completion of 60% (18 points) of the maximal scores (30 points) on the written midterm test or midterm retake. If midterm retake is failed, the semester can be accepted if the student gets min. 18 points (60%) on the end-term examination at the end of the semester.
  • Fulfilling the requirements of the practical part of Biochemistry 2.:
    • Successful performance of all laboratory courses.
    • Completion of 60% (15 points) of the maximal scores (25 points) in the laboratory courses.

If the written midterm test (or the midterm retake or the end-term examination) has not been completed, but the requirements of the practical part of Biochemistry 2. have been fulfilled, the semester is not accepted; however, only the midterm has to be repeated during a later semester. If the requirements of the practical part of Biochemistry 2. have not been fulfilled, but the written midterm test (or the midterm retake or the end-term examination) has been completed successfully, the semester is not accepted; however, only the practical part has to be repeated during a later semester.

  • 51 – 55 points:    excellent (5)
  • 45 – 50 points:    good (4)
  • 40 – 44 points:    medium (3)
  • 33 – 39 points:    satisfactory (2)
  • 0 –  32 points:     unsatisfactory (1)

It means that the theoretical (lectures, midterm) and practical (laboratory practicals) parts of Biochemistry 2. can be completed independently from each others. But please note that Biochemistry 2. labs will be held only in the spring semester of each academic year, but Biochemistry 2. midterm will be held both in the spring and fall semesters of each academic year.

It should be also regarded that attending the Biochemistry final exam (written and oral) is only possible after successful completion of all requirements of both Biochemistry 1. and 2. courses.

Evaluation system at the end of the Biochemistry 2. course:

Upon acceptance of the Biochemistry 2. semester, a signature is being given. Studying Biochemistry ends with a final examination (6 credits). Requirements of taking part on the final exam are the successful completion of all requirements of both Biochemistry 1. and 2. courses and successful completion of Chemistry (fall semester) and Veterinary and Food Chemistry (spring semester) exams.

 

 

Exam information

General remarks on the final exam:

Studying Biochemistry ends with a final examination (6 credits). Requirements of taking part on the final exam are the successful completion of all requirements of both Biochemistry 1. and 2. courses and completion of Chemistry 2. exam.

The grade of the final exam on Biochemisty will be evaluated based on four partial grades as follows:

  • Practical course grade: determined based on the sum of the points completed on the practicals and midterm of Biochemistry 2. as follows:

51 – 55 points:    excellent (5)

45 – 50 points:    good (4)

40 – 44 points:    medium (3)

33 – 39 points:    satisfactory (2)

  • Grade of the Written part of the exam
  • Oral exam: grades given for the two topics

The grade of the final exam will be determined by the examiner based on the 4 partial grades (practical course grade, grade of the written part of the exam, grades given for the two topics of the oral exam). The grade of the final exam is not calculated automatically as a mean of the partial grades.

Written part of the exam:

In the winter exam period at least 4 dates will be provided for the written part of the exam. The dates will be determined after consultation with the students and will be announced during the semester. At least two dates will be offered in the autumn and the spring semester for inactive students and in the May/June and August/September exam periods as well. Altogether 4 chances are given for inactive students to try the written part of the exam during an inactive year.

Registration for the written part of the exam is possible only via the Neptun system. After registration for the exam the student can modify or delete the date in the Neptun system until the working day before exam till 10.00 a.m.

The following topics will be included in the written part of the exam:

The written part of the final exam consists of „A” and „B” and „C” parts covering the following theoretical topics:

Topics of exam part „A”:

· Millieu enterieur, general factors of homeostasis. Isovolemia, isotonia, isoionia, isohydria. Buffer systems.

· Structure of the biological membranes. Transports across the biological membranes.

· Classification and structure of proteinogenic amino acids.

· General characteristics of proteins.

· Peptide bond. Structure of proteins. Denaturation and renaturation of proteins. Classification of proteins. Collagen, elastin, keratin.

· Characterization of enzymes. Mechanism of enzyme action. Reversibility of enzymatic reactions.

· The velocity of enzymatic reactions and factors influencing it. Regulation of enzyme activities. Zymogens, isoenzymes. Nomenclature, classification and cellular localization of enzymes.

· Chemistry of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, homo- and heteropolysaccharides).

· Biochemical role and structure of lipids.

· Biochemistry of glycerol phosphatides and sphingolipids.

Topics of exam part „B”:

· Structure of nucleotides. Structure and function of DNA.

· Replication of DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mutations, repair mechanisms.

· Transcription and its regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Influence on gene expression. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.

· Structure of the ribosomes. Activation of amino acids. Initiation, elongation and termination of the translation. Posttranslational modifications and transport of proteins.

· Theoretical background of recombinant DNA technology.

Exam part „C”:

Most important chemical structures (the List is downloadable)

The structure of the written part of the final exam:

1. Single choice questions (1 point for each correct answer):

Exam part „A”: 20 correct answers, 20 points

·Exam part „B”: 20 correct answers, 20 points

2. Exam part „C”: Chemical structures: recognize the given structures : 10 structures, 10 points (1 point/chemical name)

The rules of the written part of the exam are the same as the rules of the midterm. Students have 75 minutes to work on it. The written part of the exam is accepted if the student completes 60% (30 points) of the maximal scores (50 points), further completes in each exam parts („A”, „B” and „C”) 60-60-60% (that means in exam parts „A” at least 12 points, in exam part „B” at least 12 points and in exam part „C” at least 6 points. The results of the written part of the exam will be found on the homepage of the Division. and on the billboard at the entrance of the building not later then the first working day after the exam. The written part of the exam is on display in a limited interval. The date and time of display are announced with results. No further possibility is given to see the tests.

Evaluation of the written part of the exam:

45 – 50 points: excellent (5)

40 – 44 points:     good (4)

35 – 39 points:     medium (3)

30 – 34 points:     satisfactory (2)

0 – 29 points:       unsatisfactory (1)

 

The student can register for the oral exam if the written part of the exam is succeeded. If the written part of the exam is failed or the student does not appear on the exam (after valid registration), the student misses one chance for the written part of the exam and he/she can register for a next date in the exam period. Every failed written part of the exam reduces the number of chances for the written part of the exam. In one exam period the student has the following number of chances: 3 chances in the May/June exam period and 2 additional chances in the August/September exam period, to complete the written part of the exam. If the student cannot take part on the exam in the May/June exam period due to any reasons, the 3 chances for this exam period are lost, and only 2 chances are remaining for the August/September exam period.

The grade of a successful written part of the exam can be included in the final grade in any of the following exam periods. If the student passed the written part of the exam, it is possible to retake it once on a next date, but in this case the final grade will be evaluated based on the grade of the retake of the written exam. Retake of a successful written exam does not reduce the number of chance for the written part of the exam. After successful oral exam, the written part of the exam cannot be repeated.

Students exempted from Biochemistry 1. are exempted from the written part of the exam.

Oral exam:

The oral exam can be completed only after a successful written part of the exam, not earlier than the second working day after the written part (there has to be at least one working day between the written and oral exams). After consultation with the students, certain exam dates will be provided by the Division for oral exams. Registration for the oral exam is possible only in the Neptun system.

The oral exams start at 8.00 a.m. on the announced exam days. No tools can be used on the oral exam. The oral exam can be completed only if the student has the “black book” with him/her. The examinees draw one paper sheet with two topics. The students have at least 30 min. to prepare. Then the examinee reports orally about his/her competence regarding the given topics. The goal of the exam is not only to check the lexical knowledge, but to make sure that the student understands the interrelationships between certain topics and he/she can apply his/her knowledge in the future studies as well. Hence, the knowledge of the student can be checked with further questions concerning all topics of Biochemistry 2. and 1. as well (also for students exempted from Biochemistry 1; therefore, it is advised to visit the Biochemistry 1. lectures as well).

Students, attending additional exam “Biochemistry of ruminants and vitamins”, can be also asked concerning topics closely related to ruminants and vitamins, such as the basics of the intermediary metabolism and composition of macromolecules. Therefore, it is advised for these students to visit all the lectures of Veterinary Biochemistry 1. and 2.

If the grade of any oral topics is “unsatisfactory (1)”, the final grade will be “unsatisfactory (1)” independently of the other partial grades. In this case the student has to retake only the oral exam, the result of the written part and the practical course grade will be included in the final grade of the next exam as well.

In one exam period the student has the following number of chances: 3 chances in the May/June exam period and 2 additional chances in the August/September exam period, to complete the oral exam. If the student cannot take part on the exam in the May/June exam period due to any reasons, the 3 chances for this exam period are lost, and only 2 chances are remaining for the August/September exam period. Unsuccessful oral exam can be retaken not earlier than the third day following the unsuccessful exam. If the oral exam is succeeded, there is an opportunity to try to improve the final grade once if the student retakes the oral exam.

Topic list of the oral exam:

Topic group I.:

  1. Oxidative degradation of fuel molecules.

Biochemistry of high energy phosphate compounds.

Structure, biochemical function.

Metabolism of creatine.

Structure, synthesis, biochemical function.

Thioester bond.

  1. Glycogenesis,

Steps, location, importance.

Regulation, signal pathways of glucagon/adrenaline and insulin.

  1. Glycolysis.

Steps, types, location, regulation, energy balance, importance.

The Pasteur effect and Cori cycle.

  1. Gluconeogenesis.

Steps, entry of different substrates, location, regulation, energy balance, importance.

  1. Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl~CoA.

Steps, necessary cofactors, importance.

Glycerol phosphate shuttle.

  1. Citric acid cycle.

Steps, location, regulation, energy balance, importance.

  1. Respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation.

Structure, steps, location, energy balance, importance.

P/O proportion, uncoupling factors.

  1. The pentose phosphate pathway.

Steps of oxidative and non-oxidative phase, location, regulation, importance.

  1. Blood sugar level and its regulation.

Physiological values of blood sugar level. Hormonal regulation of blood sugar level, intracellular regulatory mechanisms, signaling pathways. Transporters of glucose circulation.

  1. Metabolism of fructose and galactose.

Synthesis and degradation of fructose. Synthesis of galactose, its entry in the synthesis of lactose and mucopolysaccharides, galactolysis.

Biochemistry of milk production.

The components of milk. Synthesis of lactose, milk proteins and milk fat.

  1. Oxidative deamination of amino acids.

Oxidative deamination of L- and D-amino acids.

Fate of the nitrogen-free carbon chain of amino acids.

Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids.

Transamination of amino acids.

Transamination reactions in general, AST, ALT. Production of Schiff-base and the mechanism of transamination.

  1. Essential and non-essential amino acids.

Decarboxylation of amino acids. Biogenic amines and their degradation.

Biochemistry of glutathione, gamma-glutamyl cycle. Carnosine and anserine.

  1. Detoxification of ammonia.

Urea cycle (steps, location, regulation, energy balance, importance).

Alternative detoxification pathways.

  1. Synthesis and degradation of purine nucleotides.

De novo synthesis, degradation, resynthesis, metabolism of deoxyribonucleotides.

  1. Synthesis and degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides.

De novo synthesis, degradation, resynthesis, metabolism of deoxyribonucleotides.

  1. Structure and biochemical role of haemoglobin.

Synthesis of haemoglobin.

Steps, location, regulation, importance.

  1. Degradation of porphyrines.

Myoglobin, cytochromes, catalase, peroxidase.

Iron metabolism.

  1. Absorbtion and circulation of lipids in the organism.

Lipolysis.

Steps, location, regulation, importance.

Lipogenesis.

      Steps, location, regulation, importance.

  1. Degradation of fatty acids: beta-oxidation.

Transport of fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix. Steps of beta-oxidation of fatty acids with even carbon atoms. Location, regulation, energy balance, importance. Specificities of beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids with odd carbon atoms.

  1. Synthesis of fatty acids.

Transport of acetyl~CoA to the cytoplasm. Steps of synthesis of fatty acids with even carbon atoms. Location, regulation, importance. Specificities of synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids with odd carbon atoms.

  1. Ketogenesis, ketolysis.

Steps, location, energy balance, importance. Biochemical function of ketone bodies.

  1. Biochemistry of

Structure, synthesis (steps, location, regulation, importance) and biochemical function of cholesterol.

Biochemistry of bile acids.

Synthesis, structure, circulation and biochemical function of bile acids.

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism of ruminants.

Degradation of carbohydrates in the rumen, production, absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in the organism.

   24. Metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in ruminants.

Production and absorption of ammonia in the rumen. NPN agents, bypass proteins. Bacterial protein production in the rumen. Ruminohepatic nitrogen-circulation.

  1. Biochemical background of ketosis in ruminants.

Connection between gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. Development and features of ketosis.

Lipid metabolism in ruminants.

Synthesis and degradation of lipids in the rumen. Characteristics of lipid metabolism of ruminants.

  1. Central role of the liver in the intermediary metabolism.

Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds.

Secretion activity of the liver.

  1. Detoxification activity of the liver.

Different detoxification processes: synthesis, hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, conjugation.

Operation of cytochrome P450 enzyme system.

  1. Biochemistry of the muscles.

Mechanism of muscle contraction.

Metabolism of muscles, types of muscle fibres.

Biochemistry of adipose tissue, kidneys and brain.

 

Topic group II.:

  1. Vitamins in general. Antivitamins. Vitamin antagonists.
  2. Structure and metabolism of β-carotene and derivatives of retinol (vitamin A).
  3. Biochemical role and deficiency of retinol (vitamin A). Toxicity of vitamin A (hypervitaminosis).
  4. Structure and metabolism of calciferol (vitamin D). Conversion of provitamin to calciferol.
  5. Biochemical role and deficiency of calciferol (vitamin D). Toxicity of vitamin D (hypervitaminosis).
  6. Structure, metabolism and deficiency of tocoferol (vitamin E).
  7. Biochemical role of tocoferol (vitamin E). Oxidative stress, free radicals, antioxidants.
  8. Structure and metabolism of phylloquinon (vitamin K).
  9. Biochemical role and deficiency of phylloquinon (vitamin K).
  10. Biochemistry of essential fatty acids.
  11. Structure and metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1).
  12. Biochemical role and deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1).
  13. Structure and metabolism of riboflavin (vitamin B2).
  14. Biochemical role and deficiency of riboflavin (vitamin B2).
  15. Structure and metabolism of niacinamide (vitamin B3).
  16. Biochemical role and deficiency of niacinamide (vitamin B3).
  17. Structure and metabolism of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), synthesis of HS~CoA.
  18. Biochemical role and deficiency of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5).
  19. Structure and metabolism of pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
  20. Biochemical role and deficiency of pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
  21. Structure, metabolism, biochemical role and deficiency of biotine (vitamin H).
  22. Structure and metabolism of folic acid (vitamin B9).
  23. Biochemical role and deficiency of folic acid (vitamin B9).
  24. Structure and metabolism of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
  25. Biochemical role and deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
  26. Structure, synthesis and metabolism of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
  27. Biochemical role and deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
  28. Biochemistry of lipotropic factors (choline, inositol).