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Education Courses General Pathology

General Pathology

Method of evaluation
semi-final examination
Year in the curriculum
Semester in the curriculum
Practical lessons
veterinary (English)
Allow for
  • Vet EN

Course description

General Pathology (anatomica pathologica generalis) gives us basic knowledge about the pathological changes in the body due to a disease. It deals with the disease itself, external and internal conditions leading to disease, lesions developing following a harmful stimulus.

The major chapters of general Pathology include post mortem changes, circulatory disturbances, regressive and proliferative changes, inflammations, tumors and developmental anomalies.

Lectures theme

1. week (16, 17 Sept)

Objective task and investigation methods of pathology. Disease and death.

Postmortem changes. Traumas and their consequences. High and low temperature.

2. week (23, 24 Sept)

Autointoxication. Internal conditions of disease. Bacteria, viruses and fungi as cause of disease. Pathologic aspects of immunology.

Irradiations, electricity. Inadequate oxygen-, water- and nutrient supply, starvation as cause of disease.

3. week (30 Sept, 1 Oct)

Spread of the pathological processes in the organism, septicemia, sepsis, bacteriemia. Regressive changes: reversible and irreversible cellular and tissue changes.

Local hyperemia, local oligemia (ischemia), hemostasis, shock.

4. week (7, 8 Oct)

Hemorrhage. Thrombosis, embolism.

Edema, disturbances in water balance of cells (and the organism), disturbances in fat metabolism.

5. week (14, 15 Oct)

Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism, pathology of the diabetes mellitus. Pathological mucus production and pathological changes in the muco-substance. Disturbances in keratinization.

Uricosis (gout). Hyalinosis, fibrinoid necrosis. Amyloidosis.

6. week (21, 22 Oct)

Pathologic pigmentation. Concrements and pseudoconcrements.

Necrosis, apoptosis, gangrene. Pathological calcification.

7. week (28, 29 Oct)

About regeneration in general. Remotion, resorption. Proliferative processes: fibrosis, fibroelastosis, elastosis, reticulosis.

Regeneration of neural tissue, connective tissue and vessels. Wound healing.

8. week (4, 5 Nov)

Metaplasia, pseudometaplasia, dysplasia, hypertrophy, hyperplasia. Transformation. Atrophy.

Inflammation. Etiology, terminology. Vascular changes and exudation. Infiltrative and proliferative processes. Mediators.

9. week (11, 12 Nov)

Exudative inflammation. Alterative and proliferative inflammation.

Inflammation in organs without blood vessels. Beneficial and harmful effects; outcome and systemic sings of acute inflammation. Granulomas in general.

10. week (18, 19 Nov)

General pathogenesis of tuberculosis, tuberculum, predominantly exudative and proliferative tuberculosis. Factors influencing the character of tuberculosis.

Actinobacillosis, actinomycosis. Granulomas caused by fungi and chemicals. Glanders.

11. week (25, 26 Nov)

Disturbances in cell division. Developmental anomalies.

General morphology of tumors. Growth and spread of tumors. Clinical effects of tumors in general.

12. week (2, 3 Dec)

Chemical oncogenesis. Viral oncogenesis. Physical agents associated with neoplasia. Classification and nomenclature of tumors. Metastasis.

Benign and malignant tumors of different tissues. I.

13. week (9, 10 Dec)

Benign and malignant tumors of different tissues. II.

Benign and malignant tumors of different tissues. III.

14. week (16, 17 Dec)

Sending specimens. Histopathology. PM report.



Practical lessons theme

1. week (14-18 Sept)


2. week (21-25 Sept)

General knowledge about the dissection. (Safety in the dissection room. Tools of the dissection).
Description of the carcass. External and internal examination of the carcasses (until opening the abdominal cavity).

3. week (28 Sept-2 Oct)

Internal examination: dissecting the abdominal organs.

4. week (5-9 Oct)

Internal examination: dissecting the oral, cervical and thoracic organs.

5. week (12-16 Oct)

Internal examination: dissecting the urogenital organs on a male. (Discussion of the similarities and differences with a female.)

6. week (19-23 Oct)

Internal examination: dissecting the nasal cavity, skull (brain), spinal column (spinal cord). (General practice).

7. week (26-30 Oct)

Internal examination: dissecting the peripheral nerves, eyes, ears, bones, joints. (General practice) (no practical on the 23rd of October)

8. week (2-6 Nov)

General practice (no practical on the 1st of November)

9. week (9-13 Nov)

General practice. Concrements and pseudoconcrements.

10. week (16-20 Nov)

Dissection of rabbits.

11. week (23-27 Nov)

General practice. Presentation of the endocrine glands.

12. week (30 Nov-4 Dec)

General practice.

13. week (7-11 Dec)

General practice. Dissection of fetuses, fetal membranes, newborn animal carcasses. Sending samples to a laboratory.

PRACTICAL EXAM: 10th of December 12:15 (on-line written)

Evaluation description

Only 3 missings from practicals are allowed, and a certificate is required for these occasions. With more missed practicals signature to the subject cannot be given, and the student is not allowed to take the exam.

At the end of the 5th semester the students are evaluated by a semi-final oral exam.
The exam has two parts: a practical exam about the dissection technique and a separate theoretical part.

Optional study material beside lecture notes:

  • Jamas F. Zachary: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease

Exam information

Before the exam (practical, oral) we check the students’ identity, therefore every student should bring the blackbook, or valid identity card/student card/passport. Without any of these documents the student can not sit the exam.

The dissection technique is examined separately as a practical exam. Practical exam’s dissection is rescheduled to the Spring semester due to current situation! The student needs to perform proper dissection of the given organ or organ system. The exam is evaluated with a mark (1-5).

In this semester, a written (on-line) exam will be held testing the practical knowledge (10th December, 12:15). Questions can be multiple choice questions, short answer questions and questions related to pictures.

The following mistakes will lead to immediate failing on practical exam, if the student:


  • starts the dissection on the carcass’s wrong side

Abdominal cavity:

  • does not cut off the stomach from the intestine
  • does not cut the stomach open totally (except pigs)
  • cuts off the tail of the animal while cutting around the anus

Oro-pharyngeal organs:

  • does not cut the soft palate

Thoracic cavity:

  • cuts off the heart from the lungs

The result of the practical part is valid for further exam periods as well. No students can sit the theoretical part without a valid practical exam.

Semi-final exams are held in the exam period (see dates on Neptun). The questions asked at the semi-final exam are covering the theoretical part of the general pathology presented during the 5th semester.
The examination is written (on-line) with 50 questions. Topics are grouped in 3 groups: A (most important), B (important) and C (curiosity) topics, and questions will be given from all 3 groups. Questions can be multiple choice questions, short answer questions and questions related to pictures. To pass the exam, students should score at least 60%.

Everyone has three opportunities to take the exam in the regular exam period. If the student does not appear in the agreed time (student was signed up for that date), one of her/his opportunities is lost (and get a fail). The minimal waiting-time for repetition of a failed exam is 3 days. The student has two more postponed opportunities in set dates by the Department.
The students need to register for the exam via Neptun system. Deadline for exam-(de)registration is 12am of the previous working day.
In case of any doubt please contact the secretary of the Department ( or Dr Mira Mandoki (

On the exam (oral or practical) it is forbidden to use or to even have in pockets any kind of electronic device, mobile phone, headset, etc. , no matter if it is switched off. If we find any of these devices during the exam, or the student commit cheating of any manner (see it in the university’s detailed exam rules), the exam cannot be continued, the student fails immediately, without any consideration. The act of cheating will be reported to the Secretariat for International Study-Programs. The appeal does not lie.

The detailed exam rules can be found at the University homepage.