General Pathology (anatomica pathologica generalis) gives us basic knowledge about the pathological changes in the body due to a disease. It deals with the disease itself, external and internal conditions leading to disease, lesions developing following a harmful stimulus.
The major chapters of general Pathology include post mortem changes, circulatory disturbances, regressive and proliferative changes, inflammations, tumors and developmental anomalies.
1. week (11, 12 Sept)
Objective task and investigation methods of pathology. Disease and death.
Postmortem changes. Traumas and their consequences.
2. week (18, 19 Sept)
High and low temperature. Irradiations, electricity. Inadequate oxygen-, water- and nutrient supply, starvation as cause of disease.
Autointoxication. Internal conditions of disease. Bacteria, viruses and fungi as cause of disease. Pathologic aspects of immunology.
3. week (25, 26 Sept)
Spread of the pathological processes in the organism, septicemia, sepsis, bacteriemia. Regressive changes: reversible and irreversible cellular and tissue changes.
Necrosis, apoptosis, gangrene. Pathological calcification.
4. week (2, 3 Oct)
Pathologic pigmentation. Concrements and pseudoconcrements.
Edema, disturbances in water balance of cells (and the organism), disturbances in fat metabolism.
5. week (9, 10 Oct)
Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism, pathology of the diabetes mellitus. Pathological mucus production and pathological changes in the muco-substance. Disturbances in keratinization.
Uricosis (gout). Hyalinosis, fibrinoid necrosis. Amyloidosis.
6. week (16, 17 Oct)
Local hyperemia, local oligemia (ischemia), hemostasis, shock.
Hemorrhage. Thrombosis, embolism.
7. week (23, 24 Oct)
23rd October NATIONAL HOLIDAY
24th October: About regeneration in general. Remotion, resorption. Proliferative processes: fibrosis, fibroelastosis, elastosis, reticulosis.
8. week (30, 31 Oct)
Regeneration of neural tissue, connective tissue and vessels. Wound healing.
Metaplasia, pseudometaplasia, dysplasia, hypertrophy, hyperplasia. Transformation. Atrophy.
9. week (6, 7 Nov)
Inflammation. Etiology, terminology. Vascular changes and exudation. Infiltrative and proliferative processes. Mediators.
Exudative inflammation. Alterative and proliferative inflammation.
10. week (13, 14 Nov)
Inflammation in organs without blood vessels. Beneficial and harmful effects; outcome and systemic sings of acute inflammation. Granulomas in general.
General pathogenesis of tuberculosis, tuberculum, predominantly exudative and proliferative tuberculosis. Factors influencing the character of tuberculosis.
11. week (20, 21 Nov)
Actinobacillosis, actinomycosis. Granulomas caused by fungi and chemicals. Glanders.
Disturbances in cell division. Developmental anomalies.
12. week (27, 28 Nov)
General morphology of tumors. Growth and spread of tumors. Clinical effects of tumors in general.
Chemical oncogenesis. Viral oncogenesis. Physical agents associated with neoplasia. Classification and nomenclature of tumors. Metastasis.
13. week (4, 5 Dec)
Benign and malignant tumors of different tissues. I.
Benign and malignant tumors of different tissues. II.
14. week (11, 12 Dec)
Sending specimens. Histopathology. PM report.
12nd December CONSULTATION
Practical lessons theme
1. week (9-13 Sept)
2. week (16-20 Sept)
General knowledge about the dissection. (Safety in the dissection room. Tools of the dissection).
Description of the carcass. External and internal examination of the carcasses (until opening the abdominal cavity).
3. week (23-27 Sept)
Internal examination: dissecting the abdominal organs.
4. week (30 Sept-4 Oct)
Internal examination: dissecting the oral, cervical and thoracic organs.
5. week (7-11 Oct)
Internal examination: dissecting the urogenital organs on a male. (Discussion of the similarities and differences with a female.)
6. week (14-18 Oct)
Internal examination: dissecting the nasal cavity, skull (brain), spinal column (spinal cord). (General practice).
7. week (21-25 Oct)
Internal examination: dissecting the peripheral nerves, eyes, ears, bones, joints. (General practice) (no practical on the 23rd of October)
8. week (28 Oct-1 Nov)
General practice (no practical on the 1st of November)
9. week (4-8 Nov)
General practice. Concrements and pseudoconcrements.
10. week (11-15 Nov)
Dissection of rabbits.
11. week (18-22 Nov)
General practice. Presentation of the endocrine glands.
12. week (25-29 Nov)
13. week (2-6 Dec)
General practice. Dissection of fetuses, fetal membranes, newborn animal carcasses. Sending samples to a laboratory.
14. week (9-13 Dec)
10th Dec from 10:00 exam for all groups
12th Dec 14:15-15:45 retake exam
Only 3 missings from practicals are allowed, and a certificate is required for these occasions. With more missed practicals signature to the subject cannot be given, and the student is not allowed to take the exam.
At the end of the 5th semester the students are evaluated by a semi-final oral exam.
The exam has two parts: a practical exam about the dissection technique and a separate theoretical part.
Optional study material beside lecture notes:
- Jamas F. Zachary: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease
Before the exam (practical, oral) we check the students’ identity, therefore every student should bring the blackbook, or valid identity card/student card/passport. Without any of these documents the student can not sit the exam.
The dissection technique is examined separately as a practical exam on the last week of the semester (10 of December exam, 12 of December retake exam). The student needs to perform proper dissection of the given organ or organ system. The exam is evaluated with a mark (1-5).
The following mistakes will lead to immediate failing on practical exam, if the student:
- starts the dissection on the carcass’s wrong side
- does not cut off the stomach from the intestine
- does not cut the stomach open totally (except pigs)
- cuts off the tail of the animal while cutting around the anus
- does not cut the soft palate
- cuts off the heart from the lungs
The result of the practical part is valid for further exam periods as well. No students can sit the theoretical part without a valid practical exam.
The questions asked at the semi-final exam are covering the theoretical part of the general pathology presented during the 5th semester.
The examination is oral. The students pick 3 questions from the topics of the general pathology, 1 from each group. Topics are grouped in 3 groups: A (most important), B (important) and C (curiosity) topics.
The students have 30 minutes to work on the 3 questions. The answers can be given in any order preferred by the student. Drafting is not mandatory.
If you cannot answer one question, we will have to send you to reexamination, even if you have already answered well the rest of the questions. This is due to the fact that every question covers an extensive part of the general pathology and the complete lack of knowledge presumably denotes an even larger deficiency.
Everyone has three opportunities to take the exam in the regular exam period. If the student does not appear in the agreed time, one of her/his opportunities is lost (and get a fail). The minimal waiting-time for repetition of a failed exam is 3 days. The student has two more postponed opportunities in set dates by the Department.
The students need to register for the exam via Neptun system. Deadline for exam-(de)registration is 12am of the previous working day.
In case of any doubt please contact the secretary of the Department (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Dr Mira Mandoki (email@example.com).
On the exam (oral or practical) it is forbidden to use or to even have in pockets any kind of electronic device, mobile phone, headset, etc. , no matter if it is switched off. If we find any of these devices during the exam, or the student commit cheating of any manner (see it in the university’s detailed exam rules), the exam cannot be continued, the student fails immediately, without any consideration. The act of cheating will be reported to the Secretariat for International Study-Programs. The appeal does not lie.
During the exam please try to avoid using the bathroom, however if the student must leave the place of examination, no more notes can be written.
The detailed exam rules can be found at the University homepage.