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Education Courses Veterinary virology

Veterinary virology

Method of evaluation
semi-final examination
Year in the curriculum
Semester in the curriculum
Practical lessons
veterinary (English)
Allow for
  • Vet EN

Course description

Denomination: Veterinary Virology

Department: Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Nature: mandatory

Specialization: veterinary

Scheduled place: 2nd year 2nd semester

Lectures: 30 lessons/semester

Practical course: 30 lessons/semester (5×2 lab. practicals, 20 plenary practicals)

Credits: 4

Practical course grade: No

Method of evaluation: midterm (general virology), exam

Teaching staff – lectures: Petra Forgách, András Marosi

Teaching staff – practical course: Petra Forgách, András Marosi, Anna Kollár

Contact: [Click to see email]



The students learn general and specific virology, focusing on pathogens of veterinary importance. They learn the immune response of the host, its protection against infectious diseases and the most important diagnostic methods. At the practicals, the main laboratory techniques and identification procedures are demonstrated together with the characteristics and identification of the most important viruses.

Teaching is organised in lectures, plenary practicals, and small-group (16 students/group) laboratory practicals.


Teaching environment

The computer-aided lectures and plenary practicals are given in lecture halls determined by the timetable. At the lectures, narrated PPT (and, if possible, Teams video) is recorded and shared with the students in the Moodle system.

The laboratory practicals are held at the practical room of the Department (1143 Budapest, Hungária krt. 23-25., entrance is from Tábornok utca 2., at Puskás Ferenc Stadion subway station), where microscopes, computerised summaries help the understanding. The demonstration material is prepared in the Virology laboratory of the Department.



Recommended literature

  • The ICTV Report
  • MACLACHLAN, N. J. – DUBOVI, E. J. (ed.): Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 5th ed. Elsevier, 2016.
  • MACLACHLAN, N. J. – DUBOVI, E. J. (ed.): Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 4th ed. Elsevier, 2010.
  • QUINN, P. J. – MARKEY, B. K. – LEONARD, F. C. – HARTIGAN, P. – FANNING, S. – FITZPATRICK, E. S.: Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 2011.

Lectures theme

Date Lecture topics 2021/2022
07 Feb. 1 Place and significance of viruses in the biosphere, evolution of viruses.
2 Morphology of viruses.
14 Feb. 3 General characteristics of viral nucleic acid.
4 Viral proteins, their role and methods of their investigation. Viral lipids and carbohydrates.
21 Feb. 5 General features of virus multiplication.
8 Mutation of viruses and its role in virus evolution.
28 Feb 6 Transcription, translation and nucleic acid replication of DNA viruses.
7 Transcription, translation and nucleic acid replication of RNA viruses.
01/02 March 9 Viral interactions (recombination, complementation, phenotypic mixing, interference, virus exaltation).
10 Virus-host cell interactions I. (resistance, interferon-response, latency, persisting infection)
07 March. 11 Virus-host cell interactions II. (viral oncogenicity)
12 Virus – host interactions I. (infection routes)
08/09 March. 13 Virus – host interactions II. (coevolution, host switch, emerging viruses)
14 Types of viral infections (acute, latent, tolerated, persisting and slow infections).
14 March 15 Antiviral medicines, interferons, interferon inducers and immune sera in therapy.
21 March 16 Immunisation against viral diseases, types of viral vaccines.
22/23 March 17 Specific virology. The taxonomy of viruses.
18 Papillomaviridae, Polyomaviridae.
28 March 19 Adenoviridae.
20 Herpesvirales.
29/30 March 21 Poxviridae.
22 Asfar-, Hepadnaviridae.
04 April 23 Parvoviridae.
24 Circo-, Anelloviridae.
05/06 April 25 Reo-, Birnaviridae.
26 Picornaviridae.
19/20 April. 27 Picornavirales (Dicistro-, Iflaviridae).
28 Caliciviridae.
25 April 29 Astro- Hepeviridae.
30 Toga-, Flaviviridae.
26/27 April 31 Coronaviridae.
32 Arteriviridae.
02 May 33 Bunyavirales, Arenaviridae.
34 Orthomyxoviridae.
03/04 May 35 Paramyxoviridae.
36 Pneumoviridae.
Date Lecture topics 2021/2022
09 May 37 Rhabdoviridae.
38 Filo-, Bornaviridae.
10/11 May 39 Retroviridae.
16 May 40 Bacteriophages, virophages.
41 Viroids, prions
17/18 May. Consultation/reserve


Practical lessons theme

Topics of plenary practicals:

Date Virology plenary practicals 2021/2022
08/09 Feb. Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections (collection and transport of samples).
Direct demonstration of virus infections I: virus isolation.
15/16 Feb. Direct demonstration of virus infections II: virus identification, detection of viral antigens.
Titration of viruses (infective titer, hemagglutinating titer).
22/23 Feb. Direct demonstration of virus infections III: detection of viral nucleic acid.
Detection and titration of antiviral antibodies (serumneutralization, hemagglutination inhibition).


Topics of laboratory practicals:

Week Virology practicals 2021/2022
14-18 Feb. Virus isolation from diagnostic samples (inoculation of embryonated eggs, and cell cultures)
21-25 Feb. Virus-induced cytopathic effects and plaque-formation on cell cultures, haemagglutination test
28 Feb.-04 March Direct diagnosis of viral infections using molecular methods I. (virus nucleic acid purification, polymerase chain reaction)
7-11 March Direct diagnosis of viral infections using molecular methods II. (agarose gel electrophoresis), indirect diagnosis of viral infections I. (virus neutralisation test)
16-22 March Indirect diagnosis of viral infections II. (evaluation of virus neutralisation, haemagglutination inhibition)

Evaluation description

Teaching, requirements of the subject



  • The theoretical background of virology diagnostic work is reviewed at the plenary lectures of semester weeks 1-3. Considering the Covid-19 pandemic, absence from the plenary lectures is acceptable; however, the condition to download the respective practical handout in Moodle is to listen to the narrated PPT recorded at the plenary lecture.
  • The 5×90 minutes of laboratory practicals start at the 2nd week of the semester and are held weekly in the practical room of the Department.
  • The basic laboratory examinations are carried out by the students themselves based on the laboratory practical handout and the instructions of the practical teacher. The handout can be downloaded from the Moodle system to print or open on electronic devices (e.g. tablets) at the practicals.
  • Attending the laboratory practicals is compulsory; the absence should be remedied. After starting the laboratory practical, a maximum of 5 minutes of delayed arrival is accepted; being late more than 5 minutes means missing the practical.
  • Attendance at laboratory practicals is not accepted without sufficient knowledge of the subjects’ theoretical backgrounds. Based on the plenary lecture notes, practical handout of the given practical subject and the information discussed at the laboratory practical, a short, 10-question (multiple choice) test is written. The “practical test” will be available in the Moodle system and can be done on the students’ own electronic devices (at home) after the laboratory practical. To answer the 10 multiple-choice questions, 5 minutes are available, and each practical test can be started 3 times. To complete a laboratory practical, in each practical test, at least 5 correct answers are needed at least once among the 3 attempts– at the evaluation, the best score is considered.
  • Absence from 1 laboratory practical (and its re-take) is acceptable without a medical reason. Missing more than 1 practical is acceptable only in case of a medical condition certified by a doctor. The students should inform the Virology staff about the absence at the latest on the morning of the given practical date in an email sent to In case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the email sent in accordance with the University rules to the email address should be forwarded to as well.
  • The missed laboratory practical can be re-taken on the same week by joining another group (if there is a free seat up to max. 16 students/group) or online by narrated PPTs and pre-recorded videos available in the Moodle system. In the case of re-taking the practical online, the test opens only after all the files covering the practical’s topics are opened.
  • To get a signature in the black book and so be able to sign up for the exam, the condition is to complete all 5 practicals (tests).
  • The deadline to complete all 5 practicals (tests) is 28 March 2022, 8:00 am.
  • Those exempted from “General virology” including the practicals, do not need to sign up to plenary and practical groups. Those exempted from “General virology” but required to complete the practicals should sign up to plenary and practical groups in the Neptun system.

Laboratory rules

– Having a white coat on is compulsory.

– Eating, drinking and smoking at the practicals is forbidden.

– Accidents at the practicals have to be reported to the teacher at the practicals.

– Pets are not allowed at the laboratory practicals.

– In case of pregnancy (certified by official note both from your doctor and Student’s Secretariat), attendance at the laboratory practical is not allowed; the laboratory practical must be completed online. Please, inform the Department in an email sent to

– In case of chronic disease, long-term hospital treatment or study abroad, the Department must be informed in advance, forwarding a medical certificate or a certificate issued by the Student’s Secretariat in an email sent to

– Because of safety reasons, the maximum number of students allowed to enter the practical room is 16. Group change is not acceptable after the 1st practical; therefore please, sign up in Neptun to that practical group in which you can complete all 5 practicals.


In the 2nd semester of the 2021/2022 academic year, the theoretical lecture topics are disseminated to “lecture” and “plenary” dates in the following timetable pattern:

date venue student groups
Monday 14:15-16:00 Hetzel lecture hall complete class
Tuesday 12:15-14:00 Urbányi lecture hall Groups 5-8
Wednesday 10:15-12:00 Kotlán lecture hall Groups 1-4
  • Previous year’s lecture notes in pdf format can be downloaded in advance from Moodle – printing and supplementing these drafts with personal notes by the information discussed at the lectures is strongly advised. The draft lecture notes in themselves are not enough to prepare for the successful exam!
  • At the lectures, narrated PPT (and, if possible, in Teams video) will be recorded and uploaded to the Moodle system after the given lecture is ended.
  • Those who are exempted from “General virology” (including the practicals as well) need to attend the “Specific virology” lectures starting on 22/23 March 2022 (Topic: Taxonomy of viruses; Papillomaviridae, Polyomaviridae).

Exam information

  • The Department should be informed about the need for special midterm/exam conditions (i.e. dyslexia), sending the certificate issued by prof. Tibor Bartha in email to


  • A midterm test is written at the end of the “General Virology” part of the course. The midterm aims to establish the knowledge necessary to understand the “Specific Virology” part of the course.
  • The form of the midterm is an online test in the Moodle system and is done on the students’ own electronic devices (at home). Types of questions include true/false and multiple-choice tests.
  • Midterm date: 29 March 2022 (Tuesday) 16:00.
  • The basis of the midterm is the „General virology” topics discussed at the lectures and virology laboratory diagnostic topics discussed at the practicals and related plenary lectures.
  • The passing score is 60%.
  • There is only 1 midterm opportunity (one date), no second chance (re-take date).
  • If the midterm result is at least “passing” (grade 2), it is included in the final mark of the exam at the end of the semester, i.e., at the final exam, only the specific virology test should be completed. In case of failing at the midterm, both the general and specific virology topics are included in the exam questions.
  • Those exempted from “General virology” are not required to write the midterm.

Final exam

  • Students can sit an examination both after the spring and autumn semesters. The condition of the registration to the exam is the signature in the black book.
  • The Department determines exam days before the exam period – one exam date in each week of the exam period is planned. Registration to exam dates and postponing an exam should be done in the Neptun system.
  • The form of the exam is an online (Moodle) test written in designated lecture halls at the Campus. The test consists of true/false and multiple-choice test questions, and the passing score is 60%. Based on the midterm result or exemption, the students will be registered to either „only specific virology” or „complete virology” test.
  • The exam results are published in Neptun within 2 days after the exam.
  • In case of failing at the exam, a re-take is possible by the exam rules of the University.