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Education Courses Veterinary virology

Veterinary virology

Method of evaluation
semi-final examination
Year in the curriculum
Semester in the curriculum
Practical lessons
veterinary (English)
Allow for
  • Vet EN

Course description

Denomination: Veterinary Virology

Department: Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Nature: mandatory

Specialization: veterinary

Scheduled place: 2nd year 2nd semester

Lectures: 30 lessons/semester

Practical course: 15 lessons/semester (10 hours of laboratory, 5 hours of plenary practicals)

Credits: 4

Practical course grade: No

Method of evaluation: semi-final examination (written, oral)

Teaching staff – lectures: Petra Forgách, András Marosi

Teaching staff – practical course: Petra Forgách, András Marosi

Contact: [Click to see email]



The students learn general and specific virology with a special focus on pathogens of veterinary importance. They learn the immune response of the host, its protection against infectious diseases and the most important diagnostic methods. At the practicals the main laboratory techniques and identification procedures are demonstrated as well as the characteristics and identification of the most important viruses. Teaching is organised in the form of lectures, plenary practicals and small-group (16 students/group) laboratory practicals.


Teaching environment

The computer aided lectures and plenary practicals are given in one of the lecture theatres of the campus.

The actual semester’s lecture notes (ppt format) are updated weekly among the downloadable documents of the course. The draft lecture notes in itself are not enough for the preparation for the successful exam! Lecture notes in pdf format can be downloaded in advance – printing and supplementing these drafts with personal notes by the information discussed at the lectures is highly recommended. Documents can be downloaded using your Neptun ID and password.

The laboratory practicals are held at the practical room of the Department (1143 Budapest, Tábornok utca 2., at Puskás Ferenc Stadion subway station), where microscopes, computerised summaries help the understanding. The basic laboratory examinations are carried out by the students themselves on the basis of the laboratory practical handout and the instructions of the practical teacher. The demonstration material is prepared in the Virology laboratory of the Department.


Recommended literature


Lectures theme

Topics of lectures (topics highlighted in bold are discussed at plenary practical dates!):

Date Virology lectures 2019/2020 Lecturer
05 Feb. 1 Place and significance of viruses in the biosphere, evolution of viruses. P.F.
2 Morphology of viruses. P.F.
12 Feb. 3 General characteristics of viral nucleic acid. P.F.
4 Viral proteins, their role and methods of their investigation. Viral lipids and carbohydrates. P.F.
19 Feb. 5 General features of virus multiplication. P.F.
8 Mutation of viruses and its role in virus evolution. P.F.
20 Feb./ 21 Feb. 6 Transcription, translation and nucleic acid replication of DNA viruses. P.F.
7 Transcription, translation and nucleic acid replication of RNA viruses. P.F.
26 Feb. 9 Viral interactions (recombination, complementation, phenotypic mixing, interference, virus exaltation). P.F.
10 Virus-host cell interactions, viral oncogenicity, cytopathic effects and plaque formation. P.F.
04 March 11 General features of viral infection (infection routes, factors influencing the virus – host interactions). P.F.
12 Types of viral infections (acute, latent, tolerated, persisting and slow infections). P.F.
05 March/ 06 March 13 Antiviral medicines, interferons, interferon inducers and immune sera in therapy. P.F.
Immunization against viral diseases, types of viral vaccines.
11 March 14 Papillomaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Adenoviridae. P.F.
15 Herpesvirales. P.F.
18 March 16 Poxviridae. P.F.
17 Asfarviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae. P.F.
25 March Midterm at the time and venue of the lecture
01 April 18 Reoviridae, Birnaviridae. P.F.
19 Picornavirales, Caliciviridae, Astroviridae, Hepeviridae P.F.
15 April 20 Togaviridae, Flaviviridae. P.F.
21 Nidovirales (Coronaviridae, Arteriviridae). P.F.
22 April 22 Orthomyxoviridae. P.F.
23 Paramyxoviridae. P.F.
29 April 24 Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae. A.M.
25 Bunyavirales, Arenaviridae, Bornaviridae. A.M.
06 May 26 Retroviridae. P.F.
27 Bakteriophages. P.F.
13 May 28 Viroids, prions. P.F.
29 Consultation P.F.


Practical lessons theme

Topics of plenary practicals:

Date   Virology plenary practicals 2019/2020 Lecturer
06 Feb./07 Feb. 1 Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections (collection and transport of samples). P.F.
2 Direct demonstration of virus infections I (virus isolation and identification). P.F.
13 Feb./14 Feb. 3 Direct demonstration of virus infections II: detection of viral antigens. P.F.
4 Direct demonstration of virus infections II: detection of viral nucleic acid. P.F.
27 Feb./28 Feb. 5 Titration of viruses (infective titer, hemagglutinating titer). P.F.
6 Detection and titration of antiviral antibodies (serumneutralization, hemagglutination inhibition). P.F.


Topics of laboratory practicals:

Date Virology practicals 2019/2020
10 Feb.-14 Feb. 1 Virus isolation from diagnostic samples (inoculation of embryonated eggs, and cell cultures)
18 Feb.-21 Feb. 2 Virus-induced cytopathic effects and plaque-formation on cell cultures
25 Feb.-28 Feb. 3 Direct diagnosis of viral infections using molecular methods I. (virus nucleic acid purification, polymerase chain reaction)
04 March-07 March 4 Direct diagnosis of viral infections using molecular methods II. (agarose gel electrophoresis), indirect diagnosis of viral infections I. (virus neutralisation test)
11 March-14 March 5 Indirect diagnosis of viral infections II. (evaluation of virus neutralisation, haemagglutination inhibition)

Evaluation description


  • Lectures serve as the basis of the subject, active participation at the lectures is the precondition of a successful exam.
  • The attendance at the lectures is followed up by catalogue, by which the attendance is rewarded with scores. These reward-scores are added to the midterm score (if the midterm result is at least “passing”), i.e. by attendance at the lectures the midterm result can be upgraded.



  • The practicals include 5 hours of plenary practicals and 10 hours of laboratory practicals. Attending the practical course (both plenary and laboratory practicals) is compulsory, absence should be remedied. The missed practical can be re-taken on the same week by joining another group (if there is free seat up to max. 16 students/group) or attending the make-up practicals at discussed dates after the practical period. After the start of the plenary or laboratory practical, maximum 5 minutes of delayed arrival is accepted, being late more than 5 minutes means missing of the practical.
  • Absence from maximum 1 plenary and 1 laboratory practical (and its re-take) is acceptable. Otherwise if more practicals are missed the re-take is not possible and the course will not be signed in the black book.
  • At the plenary practicals the theoretical background of the laboratory practical is reviewed. The notes of the plenary practicals and the laboratory practical handout serve as the basis of the laboratory practical work – using these study materials the students should prepare in advance for the laboratory practicals.
  • Without sufficient knowledge of the subjects’ theoretical background, attendance at laboratory practicals is not accepted. At the end of the laboratory practical a short, 10-question (multiple choice) test is written on the basis of the plenary practical notes, practical handout of the given practical subject and the information discussed at the laboratory practical. The tests also serve as attendance list.
  • The attendance at the lectures, plenary and laboratory practicals, the activity and the results of the short test at the laboratory practicals serve as condition on the acceptance of the semester certified by signature at the black book and therefore condition of registration to the exam.


Laboratory rules

– Having a white coat on is compulsory.

– Eating, drinking and smoking at the practicals is forbidden.

– Accidents at the practicals have to be reported to the teacher at the practicals.

– Pets are not allowed at the laboratory practicals.

– In case of pregnancy (certified by official note both from your doctor and Student’s Secretariat) attendance at the laboratory practical is not allowed. In this situation please, discuss the opportunities of make-up with the Department.

– In case of chronic disease, long-term hospital treatment or study abroad, if this is reported in advance to the Department and certified by doctor or the Students’ Secretariat and means absence from more than 1 plenary and 1 laboratory practical, please, discuss the opportunities of make-up with the Department.

– Because of safety reasons the maximum number of students allowed in the practical room is 16. Permanent group change is accepted before the start of the semester and should be discussed at the Student’s Secretariat. Please, come with the same group to all 5 practicals.

Exam information

Laboratory practical tests

  • The preparedness and activity at the laboratory practicals are checked by a short, 10-question (multiple choice) test at the end of the laboratory practical. Questions are based on the plenary practical notes, laboratory practical handout and the information discussed during the laboratory practical. For the acceptance of the laboratory attendance minimum 60%, i.e. at least 30 out of the maximum 50 scores (5×10 scores) should be performed.



  • At the end of the “General Virology” part of the course a midterm is written. Midterm date and venue: 25 March 2020 at the time and venue of the lecture (Kotlán lecture hall). There is only 1 midterm opportunity (one date), no second chance (re-take date).
  • Types of questions include true/false test (with negative marking), multiple choice test and actively answerable elements. Study material for the midterm are the lecture notes, plenary practical notes and practical handouts. Passing score is 50%.
  • The midterm has 2 functions:
  • the knowledge acquired serve as the basis and helps the understanding of the “Specific Virology” part of the course;
  • if the result of the midterm is at least “passing” (grade 2), it is included in the final mark of the exam at the end of the semester.
  • If the result of the midterm is at least “passing” (grade 2), the grade can be further upgraded by collecting reward-scores based on the attendance at the lectures.


Final exam

  • Students can sit an examination both after the spring and autumn semesters. Condition of the registration to the exam is the signature at the black book.
  • Exam days are determined by the Department before the start of the exam period. Registration to exam dates and postponing an exam is to be done at NEPTUN system.
  • At the beginning of the exam period one date is offered for written exam. All other dates during the exam period are for oral exams. Students can choose whether to sit the written exam too or register only to oral exam.
  • In case of at least “passing” (grade 2) result of the midterm, at the final exam (either written or oral) only the specific virology topics are included. In case of failing at the midterm both general and specific virology topics are included in the exam questions.
  • The written exam contains true/false test, multiple choice test and actively answerable elements. In true/false tests incorrect answers are penalized by negative scoring. (Not answering the question is not penalized.) Passing score is 50%. The results of the written exam will be published in Neptun within 5 days after the exam. In case of failing at the written exam, re-take can be done at one of the oral exam dates.
  • Oral examination starts at 7.30, the last report is at 8.30 and are done at the Department (at Puskás Ferenc Stadion subway station).
  • The oral exam consists of 2 questions. In case of failed midterm both general and specific virology topics are included. In case of at least “passing” score at the midterm, the 2 questions of the oral exam are to introduce 2 virus families classified into “A” and “B” groups of topics. The result is defined after completing the oral re-take exam.
  • The oral re-take examination is successful if at least satisfactory level of knowledge (grade 2) is shown in the case of each question.