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Education Courses Veterinary virology

Veterinary virology

Method of evaluation
semi-final examination
Year in the curriculum
Semester in the curriculum
Practical lessons
veterinary (English)
Allow for
  • Vet EN

Course description

Denomination: Veterinary Virology

Department: Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Nature: mandatory

Specialization: veterinary

Scheduled place: 2nd year 2nd semester

Lectures: 30 lessons/semester

Practical course: 30 lessons/semester (5×2 lab practicals, 20 plenary practicals)

Credits: 4

Practical course grade: No

Method of evaluation: midterm (general virology), exam

Teaching staff – lectures: Petra Forgách, András Marosi

Teaching staff – practical course: Petra Forgách, András Marosi, Anna Kollár, Csenge Tolnai

Contact: [Click to see email]



The students learn general and specific virology, focusing on pathogens of veterinary importance. They learn the immune response of the host, its protection against infectious diseases and the most important diagnostic methods. The main laboratory techniques and identification procedures are demonstrated at the practicals with the characteristics and identification of the most important viruses.

Teaching is organised in lectures, plenary practicals, and small-group (18 students/group) laboratory practicals.


Teaching environment

The computer-aided lectures and plenary practicals are given in lecture halls determined by the timetable. At the lectures, Teams video (and, if possible, narrated PPT) is recorded and shared with the students in the Moodle system.

The laboratory practicals are held at the practical room of the Department (1143 Budapest, Hungária krt. 23-25., at Puskás Ferenc Stadion subway station), where microscopes, laboratory equipment and computerised summaries help the understanding. The demonstration material is prepared in the Virology laboratory of the Department.


Recommended literature

  • The ICTV Report
  • MACLACHLAN, N. J. – DUBOVI, E. J. (ed.): Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 5th ed. Elsevier, 2016.
  • MACLACHLAN, N. J. – DUBOVI, E. J. (ed.): Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 4th ed. Elsevier, 2010.
  • QUINN, P. J. – MARKEY, B. K. – LEONARD, F. C. – HARTIGAN, P. – FANNING, S. – FITZPATRICK, E. S.: Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 2011.

Lectures theme

Topics of the theoretical lectures (starting from 26 February, at “plenary” dates, too!)

Date Schedule of the theoretical lectures
5 Feb. Place and significance of viruses in the biosphere, evolution of viruses
Morphology of viruses
12 Feb. General characteristics of viral nucleic acid
Viral proteins, their role and methods of their investigation. Viral lipids and carbohydrates
19 Feb. General features of virus multiplication
Mutation of viruses and its role in virus evolution
26 Feb. Transcription, translation and nucleic acid replication of DNA viruses
Transcription, translation and nucleic acid replication of RNA viruses
27/28 Feb. Viral interactions (recombination, complementation, phenotypic mixing, interference, virus exaltation)
Virus-host cell interactions I. (resistance, interferon-response, latency, persisting infection)
4 March Virus-host cell interactions II. (viral oncogenicity)
Virus – host interactions I. (infection routes)
5/6 March Virus – host interactions II. (coevolution, host switch, emerging viruses)
Types of viral infections (acute, latent, tolerated, persisting and slow infections).
11 March Antiviral medicines, interferons, interferon inducers and immune sera in therapy.
12/13 March Immunisation against viral diseases, types of viral vaccines.
18 March Specific virology. The taxonomy of viruses.
Papillomaviridae, Polyomaviridae.
19/20 March Adenoviridae.
2/3 April Poxviridae.
Asfar-, Hepadnaviridae.
8 April Parvoviridae.
Circo-, Anelloviridae.
9/10 April Reo-, Birnaviridae.
15 April Picornavirales (Dicistro-, Iflaviridae).
16/17 April Astro- Hepeviridae.
Toga-, Flaviviridae.
22 April Coronaviridae.
23/24 April Bunyavirales, Arenaviridae.
29 April Paramyxoviridae.
6 May Rhabdoviridae.
Filo-, Bornaviridae.
7/8 May Retroviridae.
13 May Bacteriophages, virophages.
Viroids, prions.

On 14/15 May at plenary dates and venue, a personal consultation is offered to the students for signing the logbook and/or asking questions regarding the topics, exam, etc.

Practical lessons theme

Topics of mandatory plenary practicals

Date Virology plenary practicals
6/7 Feb. Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections (collection and transport of samples).
Direct demonstration of virus infections I: virus isolation.
13/14 Feb. Direct demonstration of virus infections II: virus identification, detection of viral antigens.
Titration of viruses (infective titer, hemagglutinating titer).
20/21 Feb. Direct demonstration of virus infections III: detection of viral nucleic acid.
Detection and titration of antiviral antibodies (serum neutralisation, hemagglutination inhibition).



Topics of laboratory practicals

Week Virology laboratory practicals
12-16 Feb. Virus isolation from diagnostic samples (inoculation of embryonated eggs, and cell cultures)
19-23 Feb. Virus-induced cytopathic effects and plaque-formation on cell cultures, haemagglutination test
26 Feb.-01 March Direct diagnosis of viral infections using molecular methods I. (virus nucleic acid purification, polymerase chain reaction)
4-8 March Direct diagnosis of viral infections using molecular methods II. (agarose gel electrophoresis), indirect diagnosis of viral infections I. (virus neutralisation test)
10-14 (22) March* Indirect diagnosis of viral infections II. (evaluation of virus neutralisation, haemagglutination inhibition)

* Mon – Thu. practical groups have the 5th practical on the week of 10 March; Friday practical groups do it on 22 March.

Evaluation description


  • The theoretical background of virology diagnostic work is reviewed at the plenary practicals of semester weeks 1-3 (dates and topics see page 7). Personal attendance at these classes is mandatory; only one class can be missed, and that is required to be retaken. In case of absence from the date designated by the timetable for the practical group a student is assigned to (Tuesday 12:15-14:00 for groups 5-10, Wednesday 10:15-12:00 for groups 1-4), the retake is possible to join to the groups of the other date or online in Moodle. The online retake is to write a short essay about the topics discussed at the plenary session: the question is based on the presentation; therefore, the correct answer can be given only by listening to the recording of the missed class.
  • The 5×90 minutes of laboratory practicals start in the 2nd week of the semester and are held weekly in the practical room of the Department (1143 Budapest, Hungária krt. 23-25., The practical dates and topics are summarised on page 7.
  • The basic laboratory examinations are carried out by the students’ manual work based on the laboratory practical handout and the instructions of the practical teacher. The handout can be downloaded from the Moodle system to print in advance or open on electronic devices (e.g. tablets) at the practicals.
  • Attending the laboratory practicals is mandatory. After starting the laboratory practical, a maximum of 5 minutes of delayed arrival is accepted; being more than 5 minutes late means missing the practical.
  • Attendance at laboratory practicals is not accepted without sufficient knowledge of the subjects’ theoretical backgrounds. Based on the plenary lecture notes, practical handout of the given practical topic and the information discussed at the laboratory practical, a short, 10-question (multiple choice) test is written. The “practical test” will be available in the Moodle system and can be done on the students’ own electronic devices (at home) after the laboratory practical. The 10 multiple-choice questions should be answered in 5 minutes, and each practical test can be started 3 times. To complete a laboratory practical, at least 5 correct answers are needed at least once among the 3 attempts in each practical test – at the evaluation, the best score is considered.
  • Absence from 1 laboratory practical (and its retake) is acceptable without a medical reason. Missing more than 1 practical is acceptable only in case of a medical condition certified by a doctor. The students should inform the Virology staff about the absence at the latest on the morning of the given practical date in an email sent to In terms of infectious diseases, the University rules are applied.
  • The missed laboratory practical can be retaken in the same week by joining another group (if there is a free seat for up to max. 18 students/group – discuss it with the Virology staff by emailing or online by narrated PPTs and pre-recorded videos available in the Moodle system. Online retake is acceptable in 1 (with medical reasons, maximum 2) missed practical dates. In the case of retaking the practical online, the test opens only after all the files covering the practical’s topics are opened; apart from this, the test rules (10 questions, 5 minutes, 3 attempts, evaluation method) are the same as above.
  • To get a signature in the black book, and so be able to sign up for the exam, the condition is to complete all 5 practicals (tests), i.e. attendance at (or retake) the plenaries, attendance at (or retake) the labs and reaching the passing score at the practical tests.
  • The deadline to complete the practicals is 26 March 2024, 8:00 am. Only those who complete the practicals until the deadline are eligible to sit the midterm.
  • Those exempted from “General virology”, including the practicals, do not need to sign up for plenary and practical groups and do not need to sit the midterm.
  • Those exempted from “General virology” but required to complete the practicals should sign up for plenary and practical groups in the Neptun system, attend the plenaries on weeks 1-3, attend the practicals on weeks 2-7 and do the lab tests; sitting the midterm is not necessary.

Laboratory rules

– Having a white coat on is compulsory. Students must have proper size and material (latex, or, in case of latex allergy, nitrile or vinyl) surgical gloves to use during the laboratory work.

– Eating, drinking and smoking at the practicals is forbidden.

– Accidents at the practicals must be reported immediately to the teacher.

– Pets are not allowed to enter the Department’s building; please do not take them to the practicals.

– In case of pregnancy (certified by an official note from your OB/GYN and the Student’s Secretariat), personal attendance at the laboratory practical is not allowed; the laboratory practical must be completed online. Please inform the Department in an email sent to

– In case of chronic disease, long-term hospital treatment or study abroad, the Department must be informed in advance, forwarding a medical certificate or a certificate issued by the Student’s Secretariat in an email sent to

– Because of safety reasons, the maximum number of students allowed to enter the practical room is 18. Group change is not acceptable after the 1st practical; therefore, please sign up in Neptun for a practical group with a schedule enabling you to complete all 5 practicals with the same group.



  • In the 2nd semester of the 2023/2024 academic year, the theoretical lecture topics (page 6.) are disseminated to “lecture” and, starting from semester week 4, also to “plenary” dates in the following timetable pattern:
date venue student groups
Monday 14:15-16:00 Hetzel lecture hall complete class
Tuesday 12:15-14:00 Hetzel lecture hall Groups 5-10
Wednesday 10:15-12:00 Kotlán lecture hall Groups 1-4
  • The updated lecture notes in PDF format will be available in Moodle for download before the lecture; printing and supplementing these drafts with personal notes on the information discussed at the lectures is strongly advised. The draft lecture notes alone are not enough to prepare for a successful exam!
  • The lectures are recorded in Teams (and, if possible, in narrated PPTs), and the videos are uploaded to the Moodle system after the lecture ends.
  • Those who are exempted from “General virology” (including the practicals as well) need to attend the “Specific virology” lectures starting on 18 March 2024 (starting topic: Taxonomy of viruses; Papillomaviridae, Polyomaviridae).

Exam information

Exam information

  • Dysfunction-related (i.e. dyslexia) special midterm/exam conditions are applied to students whose specific conditions the Student’s Secretariat officially reports to the Department based on the certificate issued by Prof. Tibor Bartha.


  • A midterm test is written at the end of the “General Virology” part of the course. The midterm aims to establish the knowledge necessary to understand the “Specific Virology” part of the course. Those exempted from “General virology” are not required to sit the midterm.
  • The form of the midterm is an online test in the Moodle system and is done on the students’ own electronic devices (at home). Types of questions include true/false and multiple-choice tests.
  • Midterm date: 2 April 2024 (Tuesday) 15:00.
  • The basis of the midterm is the „General virology” topics discussed at the lectures and virology laboratory diagnostic topics discussed at the practicals and related plenary lectures.
  • The passing score is 60%.
  • There is only 1 midterm opportunity (one date) and no second chance (retake date).
  • If the midterm result is at least “passing” (grade 2), it is included in the final mark of the exam at the end of the semester, i.e., at the final exam, only the specific virology test should be completed. In case of failing the midterm, both the general and specific virology topics are included in the exam questions.

Final exam

  • Students can sit an examination both after the spring and autumn semesters. The condition of registration for the exam is the signature in the black book.
  • The Department determines exam days before the exam period – one exam date each week during the exam period is planned. Registration for exam dates and postponing an exam should be done in the Neptun system.
  • The form of the exam is an online (Moodle) test written in designated lecture halls at the Campus on notebooks provided by the University. The test consists of true/false and multiple-choice questions, with a passing score of 60%. Based on the midterm result or exemption, the students will be registered for either „only specific virology” or „complete virology” tests.
  • The exam results are published in Neptun within 2 days after the exam.
  • In case of failing the exam, the retake is by the exam rules of the University.